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Measures of Positive Psychology: Development and Validation. JK Rowling. Home Measures of Positive Psychology: Develop Measures of Positive Psychology: Develop Kamlesh Singh. Average Rating Customers. Submit Review Submit Review. Check Delivery Status.
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Monday to Saturday 9. E-Gift Coupon , click here. Insights Insights, Account, Orders. About SapnaOnline. Why Shop at SapnaOnline. Create New Account. My Order History. Participants in this sample had all signed up to experimental studies unrelated to the current project but which provided the opportunity for us to ask them to complete the PFI Data on the PFI were subsequently pooled for the purpose of conducting pilot correlational analysis between the two-six item scales.
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This study was undertaken in a different year to the sample collected in Sample 1 and data were collected with the purpose of providing convergent validity data. As well as the PFI respondents completed other well established psychometric measures with which to assess validity i. Factor analysis studies confirm that these six dimensions form a single component that is distinct from reports of hedonic well-being Linley et al. As such, only the total scale score was used in the present study. Fourth, the item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Rosenberg [ ] was used to assess global self-esteem.
Six of the items are used to measure optimism e.
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Second, the item Perceived Stress Scale Cohen et al. In the last month, how often have you felt nervous and "stressed"? Psychometrically there is evidence of a two factor structure to the scales, comprising Personal Competence self-reliance, independence, determination, invincibility, mastery, resourcefulness and perseverance and Acceptance of Self and Life adaptability, balance, flexibility and a balanced perspective on life Portzky et al.
For the purpose of this study we computed the two subscales of Personal Competence and Acceptance of Self and Life. Fifth, the 6-item Brief Resilience Scale Smith et al. First, the item Short Five Konstabel et al.
The BIS scale contains seven items assessing anxiety sensitivity to events. Four items are used as filler items. With these additional data we specifically wished to test the PFI association with social desirability. We were concerned to ascertain the relationship of the two six-item scales. These results are consistent with previous research which has shown that broad based measures of depression and anxiety generally do not tap distinct construct and supports the summation of both scales to provide an overall index, the item Positive Functioning Inventory PFI with higher scores indicating greater positive functioning.
The highest possible score on the PFI is 36 and indicates full endorsement of the six positive items pleased, enjoyable, happy content, calm, relaxed and a lack of endorsement of the six negative items dissatisfied, cheerless, meaningless, upset, tense, worried. Conversely, the lowest possible score of 0 would indicate a lack of endorsement of the positive items and full endorsement of the negative items.
As such practitioners are able to plot the trajectory of client's recovery across the full spectrum of functioning, with higher scores indicating greater positive functioning. These results indicate that the measure has a high degree of internal coherence. These results indicate that the measure is moderately stable over time as would be expected in a state measure of well-being but not so stable that it would be considered a trait. We were interested in seeing whether PFI shows incremental validity in predicting current stress after controlling for the two main extant well-being states, hedonic positive and negative affect and eudaimonic psychological well-being.
Reliability and validity estimates supported the psychometrics of the PFI with college women and men, as evidenced by tests for its internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct and discriminant validity with a number of other measures chosen to assess the characteristics of people who are functioning positively. As expected, effect sizes were highest with well-being, negative and positive affect, stress, self-efficacy and self-esteem.
With secondary variables of coping and resilience, medium effect sizes were found providing evidence for convergent validity. As such the PFI appears to provide an index of general psychological health, with lower scores indicating the presence of dysfunction, and higher scores the presence of positive functioning.
Associations were also found with personality variables as expected although none of the associations tested for were found to be so high that the new measure could be considered synonymous with personality. Further psychometric work could expand the nomological net wider to test for convergent validity with other theoretically related constructs derived from the positive psychology field that are known to be associated with well-being, such as authenticity Wood et al. We suggest that the PFI promises to have utility for practitioners whose concern is not only with the treatment of distress and dysfunction but also the facilitation of positive functioning, in three ways.
Such therapists may find the scale useful as it provides a measure more consistent with their theoretical orientation. Second, it is becoming increasingly recognised that there is a need for scientific studies into the effectiveness of therapy. Such studies will benefit from the use of measures of well-being. Third, the PFI can also be used as a research tool with which to assess the determinants of well-being and the factors that promote positive outcomes in therapy.
For example, although, it is known that the therapeutic alliance is one of the important ingredients in therapy, we only know this in relation to recovery from symptoms.
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It remains to be seen to what extent the relationship is also important in promoting positive change. There are several advantages to the PFI First, even though it is an adaption of two existing measures, it remains relatively brief. As such, it is likely to maximize response rates, and minimize the number of response errors and unanswered items. Its brevity also means that the PFI can be easily accommodated within a wider battery of measures when other issues are also a target of assessment.
Second, the PFI provides a novel conceptualisation of well-being as a spectrum of functioning. As such it is a useful tool for practitioners and researchers who wish to assess the full range of functioning and not be restricted by either floor or ceiling effects. By and large, new measures in the positive psychology literature tend be statistically unipolar. As such, despite the popularity of such tools among positive psychologists and others interested in human flourishing, their use by practitioners and researchers within clinical psychology is limited because of floor effects.
Third, although based on existing measures which relate to current conceptions of dysfunction the aim in developing the PFI is to reconceptualise these clinical phenomena in a new way that provides a non-medicalized view of functioning. The PFI accommodates existing clinical language of depression and anxiety within a statistically bipolar positive psychological conceptualisation. This is advantageous because the relevance of the tool to clinicians is clear.
Scores on the PFI can provide a useful summary of a client's progress. As with all such tools, clinical judgment is always important. Items are asked in relation to their frequency. One might expect that most people who are functioning well in their lives will score relatively highly on the tool indicating that for most of the week they experienced more positive states than negative states. However, we would suggest that clinicians must be cautious in interpreting the scores of those who consistently score at the maximum. We cannot rule out the possibility that such a scoring pattern may in fact reflect an illusory or self-deceptive state in some.
It is also important in the interpretation of scores to take into account the context of a person's life and what affective, cognitive and bodily states are likely to be adaptive given their unique circumstances. As already mentioned, the concepts of depression and anxiety cut across the positive psychology constructs of hedonic subjective and eudaimonic psychological well-being. While positive psychologists may consider SWB and PWB as separate topics for research, therapeutically it has long been recognised in the description of depressive and anxious states that SWB and PWB are related and difficult to distinguish.
There are limitations to the study and a need for further research. First, the sample was comprised of undergraduate students and not a clinical sample. As such there is further evidence required to validate its use as a clinical tool. However, we would note that the scale is adapted from two previous established clinical measures of anxiety and depression and as such there is no reason to think that it would not perform as expected. Second, no evidence of change was provided due to intervention. Further evidence is also needed to show that the scale will be a sensitive measure of change over sessions in the facilitation of positive functioning.
Finally, as yet there has been little research attention on how positive psychology applications apply to the most deeply distressed and dysfunctional. For example, do traditional treatments for the alleviation of psychological distress also facilitate positive functioning?
Are the exercises and techniques developed by positive psychologists for the promotion of well-being also helpful for the alleviation of psychological distress? The PFI is one research tool that can facilitate this new avenue of research. In conclusion the PFI performed well against accepted criteria, is reliable and valid, and easy to administer.
It is especially useful to practitioners because it addresses the traditional need to assess states of distress and dysfunction but also accommodates the perspective of positive psychology, allowing clinicians to conceptualise therapy as consisting of both the alleviation of symptoms and the promotion of well-being.
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