Economic, social and planetary well-being has a price tag. What will it take to realize the ambitious Agenda focused on strengthening the three pillars of sustainable development? Countries facing high and growing levels of inequality and environmental degradation will have to change course from pursuing a growth path that neglects people and the planet.
The Survey forecasts continuing robust growth in the region which remains the engine of the world economy. It could end extreme poverty and malnutrition for more than million people. A quality education for every child and youth would become possible, as would basic health care for all. Better access to transport, information and communications technology ICT as well as water and sanitation could be ensured.
Universal access to clean and modern energy, as well as energy-efficient transport, buildings and industry could be achieved. Climate and disaster-resilient infrastructure could be built. Resources could be used more effectively, and the planet protected. Most of this investment is needed to protect and nurture people and the planet. Of course, in a region as diverse as ours, investment needs vary considerably.
More than two-thirds of the investment in these countries will be in reducing social deficits — poverty, malnutrition, lack of health care and education as well as job creation. Landlocked developing countries need to invest most in improving transport and ICT infrastructure as well as water and sanitation services. East and North-East Asia and, to a lesser degree, South-East Asia, need to focus on clean energy and climate action investment. It should be remembered that the Goals support each other and an investment in one area has a positive effect on another.
Good health depends not only on access to healthcare services but also nutrition, safe water, sanitation and good air quality. Education for all also promotes gender equality. Resource efficiency supports climate change mitigation. Besides harnessing these synergies, sustainable development financing strategies will have to turn to public and private finance. The good news is that most countries in the region have the fiscal space to invest in the Goals.
Enhanced regional cooperation would also help the region offset external risks and build resilience by tapping into regional resources.
Above all, leadership will be crucial in making the transition to a development strategy that balances all dimensions of human and planetary well-being. The Survey aims to stimulate a regional dialogue and offers guidance on accelerating progress towards the Goals in the region. The full Report is available here. We can see the worsening impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, ocean pollution, soil degradation and water scarcity. Earth Hour is an opportunity to show support for ambitious climate action, by turning off your lights this Saturday, March 30 th , at p.
This can allow people to transact without cash or a physical meeting. For many goods traded at distance or for services such as accommodation or transport in the sharing economy, rating systems support the trade by codifying trust.
Dispute-resolution processes also mean people have a backup if things go wrong. This can make buyers feel safer online and allow for trade across countries. In this way, digital tools can assist trade even if there is limited regulation. The tools include platforms and client relationship management software. A boost in intra-country trade can involve import substitution and potentially reduce costs. The nature of the potential benefits that can be derived from successfully getting SMEs to embrace digital technologies has been explored in two extensive reports prepared by Deloitte for Google in India and Indonesia.
In Indonesia, fewer than 1 in 10 small businesses considered themselves as having advanced online capabilities, while 73 percent are offline or have only very basic online capabilities. The potential benefits of digital technology for Indonesian SMEs include:. Initial anecdotal evidence points towards greater adoption of digital modes of payment by consumers and businesses even after remonetisation is almost complete in the Indian economy.
The Indian government has arguably pulled off one of the most significant reform measures in the recent past by demonetising high-value currency notes. This caused a sudden shortage in currency in circulation, as approximately 86 percent of the currency had to be exchanged. While the move had some negative impact, there were some long-term positives too.
A push toward digitisation in the payment stream was one such phenomenon. The decision, in late , to recall banknotes from circulation has essentially been a shot in the arm for fintech and other banking services in the country. The shortage of currency made it necessary for all segments of society to use electronic money. The result was a massive increase in digital payment mechanisms even after the economy was completely remonetised. In fact, the economy has witnessed a 59 percent increase in transactions through digital channels in March compared to the first month after demonetization was announced.
It is important to note that while some of this increase would be an initial reaction, long-term structural factors show that India is ready for a digital revolution and this event will lead to permanent shifts in digital. By , the Indian Internet user base is forecast to reach Over the longer term, payment gateways, cards, mobile wallets, online retail, payment banks, and e-marketplace industries are likely to see net gains.
Individuals around the globe are embracing and driving change, at least where the technology is available and affordable. Digital has the potential to open up a range of opportunities for consumers, from connectivity and mobility to access to social media and digital banking, and this can support economic growth and development.
Digital is driving connectivity in Asian countries, from mobiles connecting consumers in rural areas to improving liveability and convenience in urban areas, particularly as urbanisation throughout Asia results in congestion and environmental challenges. Asian consumers are either already embracing digital or showing that they will when access improves and costs ease, as evidenced by the strong adoption of mobile. Mobile penetration rates are rising rapidly in the region, driving widespread Internet adoption and transforming consumer behaviour.
In Indonesia, for example, consumers have embraced mobile Internet in a country where difficult terrain has inhibited investment in fixed-line communication. There are over 1. A survey by Nielsen in found that Indonesians who do use the Internet were more likely to access it on their mobile phones than in any of the other major countries in Southeast Asia. There has been strong take-up of social media; in May , Indonesia was ranked 4th in the world in terms of number of Facebook users 78 million , behind India, the United States, and Brazil.
Internet penetration in India has also grown rapidly over the last few years, with around million users in December , and a potential million additional potential users. Also, 77 percent of urban and 92 percent of rural users consider mobile the primary device for accessing the Internet. For mobile broadband services, the cost of mb of prepaid mobile data as a share of income is the highest in the world, other than in Africa, as shown in Figure 1. There is high participation in social networks, with India leading the way with the highest number of Facebook users in the world million in May Indonesia ranks 4th, with 78 million users.
When considering all forms of social media, over 1 billion individuals across Asia were active users of social media in , with million in China alone and a further million in India and 76 million in Indonesia. In Japan, LINE is the most popular mobile messaging app, allowing users to send messages, share picture, movies, and music. Its appeal to the Japanese includes the ability to post anonymously and the greater detail possible in characters relative to English. Japan also holds the world record for the most number of tweets per second , during a television broadcast of a local movie classic.
Online shopping is emerging as a strong competitor to shopping in physical stores, with its success underpinned by sophisticated payment systems and efficient logistics networks. Some of the major online marketplaces allow users to create accounts with value on the platform itself, so that payments are not delayed while waiting for bank clearance, allowing goods to be delivered faster. The Alibaba Group also operates the Tmall website launched in , which is its business-to-consumer e-commerce platform.
While Taobao Marketplace facilities the transaction of goods between private buyers and sellers, including small businesses, Tmall sellers are typically larger registered businesses. These two platforms had million active buyers as of the end of , 12 which roughly represents 60 percent of all Internet users in China.
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These numbers also imply that online retailing has had extensive reach in the country. In , more than 2 million Taobao Marketplace stores were registered to rural IP addresses in China. The success of Taobao Marketplace and Tmall is attributed to the ability of the Alibaba Group to customise its features to meet the needs of the local market. For example, the AliWangWang instant chat program allows for pre-sales consultation and after-sales service.
The introduction of the Alipay escrow-based online payment platform in provided consumers the additional security of only paying for goods upon receipt and inspection. At the same time, the availability of Alipay meant that many Chinese consumers who did not have credit cards were able to purchase goods online. In addition to the development of this digital infrastructure, investment in logistics support services has also been critical.
The online shopping experience is ultimately dependent on the goods delivery experience. The Cainiao Network, a partly owned affiliate of Alibaba Group, runs a logistics platform and central data-communications network that helps coordinate deliveries with more than 3, independent logistics companies located across China and abroad Alibaba Group. Again, service coverage goes beyond the cities. For example, Cainiao served more than 1, villages across a number of provinces at that time, and around 20 percent of the parcels delivered to rural areas were delivered on the same day or the next day Alizila.
As these trends converge and combine, the nature of retail, distribution, marketing, and consumer engagement is changing. Consumers also stand to benefit from gains in digital banking. In developed Asian markets, Internet banking is now near universal and smartphone banking has grown more than threefold since In emerging Asian markets, about a quarter of consumers are using computers and smartphones for their banking. This is important for the traditional banking system, as more than 80 percent of consumers in developed Asian markets are willing to shift some of their holdings to a bank that offers a compelling digital proposition.
In emerging Asia, more than 50 percent of consumers indicate such willingness. Digital banking includes smartphone and Internet banking. Smartphone banking is making particular inroads in developing Asia, with penetration increasing over fivefold in the three years from to , going from 5 percent of the population using smartphone banking in to 26 percent in Mobile banking can also improve financial inclusion in the region. For example, in Papua New Guinea, mobile network operators have been exempted under the Banks and Financial Institutions Act to conduct mobile phone money transfers.
Further, mobile banking promotes financial inclusion by providing access even in regions where the number of physical branches is limited. Financial inclusion through digital banking has been taken very seriously in India, where a large section of the population still relies on informal sources of financing. The government started to push for banking via digital modes in through the popular JAM Jan Dhan, Aadhar, and mobile program. Mobile payments are also booming; of the million WeChat users in China, million are using its mobile payment services.
Digital technologies can help countries leap over development hurdles, increase productivity, and boost economic growth—technological advances and falling prices mean that even countries without extensive telco infrastructure are able to take advantage of digital. Innovation is increasingly based on digital technologies and business models that effectively utilise ICT.
As innovation is a key driver of economic and social gains, encouraging businesses and individuals to fully embrace digital technologies should be a priority for governments. The second announcement of interest in serving on the working group shall take place at the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting convened on the occasion of the midpoint of the Decade The Commission at its seventy- fourth session, in , will make the final decision on the composition of the working group for the second term, spanning the period It shall, inter alia, disseminate working group documentation in accessible formats.
See www. The Millennium Development Goals comprise eight goals, 21 targets and 60 indicators. Core indicators facilitate intercountry sharing of progress in the course of the new Decade; these are indicators for which data can be generated with some effort. Supplementary indicators may facilitate progress tracking among countries with similar social and economic development conditions and for which data may be less easy to collect.
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Go to the top of this page. Go to the upper category. Background B. Key principles and policy direction C. Modalities for effective implementation:national, subregional and regional levels 1. National level 2. Subregional level 3. Recognize the central role of government in ensuring, promoting and upholding the rights of persons with disabilities and in promoting the inclusion of disability dimensions in the development agenda beyond in diverse sectors; 3.
Commit to implement the present Declaration and the Incheon Strategy by promoting action to reach the Incheon goals and targets by ; 4 Invite all concerned stakeholders, including the following, to join in a region-wide partnership to contribute to the implementation of the present Declaration and the Incheon Strategy: a. Development cooperation agencies, to strengthen the disability- inclusiveness of their policies, plans and programmes; c.
The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, to harness their technical and financial resources for promoting disability- inclusive development in Asia and the Pacific; d. The United Nations system, including programmes, funds and specialized agencies and ESCAP, to jointly deliver disability- inclusive development in Asia and the Pacific, including through effective use of existing mechanisms at the national, regional and international levels, such as the United Nations Development Group and United Nations country teams, e.
Civil society organizations, particularly organizations of and for persons with disabilities, to participate effectively in the monitoring and evaluation of the Decade to foster continuous responsiveness on the aspirations and needs of persons with disabilities, including through outreach to diverse disability groups, and contributing to policy and programme development and implementation; f.
Organizations of and for persons with disabilities, to participate actively in decision-making processes concerning the Incheon Strategy; g The private sector, to promote disability-inclusive business practices; 5. To accord priority to supporting members and associate members in the full and effective implementation of the present Declaration and the Incheon Strategy, in cooperation with other concerned entities; b. To engage with stakeholders and encourage their participation in the implementation of the present Declaration and the Incheon Strategy; c. To submit the outcome of this High-level Intergovernmental Meeting to the Commission at its sixty-ninth session for endorsement; d.
To submit the outcome of this High-level Intergovernmental Meeting to the High-level Meeting on the Realization of the Millennium Development Goals and other Internationally Agreed Development Goals for Persons with Disabilities, to be convened on 23 September , through the President of the General Assembly; d To report to the Commission triennially thereafter until the end of the Decade on the progress in the implementation of the present Declaration and the Incheon Strategy; f.
Background 1. Key principles and policy direction The Incheon Strategy is based on the principles of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a. Non-discrimination; c. Full and effective participation and inclusion in society; d. Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity and humanity; e. Equality of opportunity; f.
Accessibility; g. Equality between men and women; h. In order to realize and protect the rights of persons with disabilities in the Asian and Pacific region, the Incheon Strategy underscores the following policy direction: a. Legislative, administrative and other measures supportive of rights fulfilment are adopted, implemented, reviewed and strengthened so that disability-based discrimination is eliminated; b.
Development policies and programmes are disability-inclusive and gender-sensitive and harness the potential of combining universal design with technological advancements for enabling persons with disabilities to fulfil their rights; c. Development policies and programmes address the basic needs of persons with disabilities and their families who live in poverty; d.
Effective and timely collection and analysis of sex-disaggregated disability data are pursued for evidence-based policymaking; e. National, subnational and local policies and programmes are based on plans that are explicitly inclusive of persons with disabilities and that also prioritize the active participation of persons with disabilities, through their representative organizations, in relevant decision-making processes; f.
The necessary budgetary support is provided at all levels for disability-inclusive development and tax policies facilitate the inclusion of persons with disabilities; g. All national, subregional, regional and international entities concerned with development include disability dimensions in their policies and programmes; h. National, subnational and local coordination, with subregional and regional linkages, ensure that disability inclusion in development policies and programmes is strengthened through intensification of multisectoral consultation and collaboration, to expedite and review Decade implementation and share related good practices; i.
Community- and family-based inclusive development is promoted in order to ensure that all persons with disabilities, irrespective of socioeconomic status, religious affiliation, ethnicity and location, are able, on an equal basis with others, to contribute to and benefit from development initiatives, particularly poverty reduction programmes; j. Persons with disabilities are included in mainstream community life and are supported with life choices equal to those of others, including the option to live independently; k. Persons with disabilities have access to the physical environment, public transportation, knowledge, information and communication, in a usable manner, through universal design and assistive technologies with reasonable accommodation provided, and taking into consideration the need to accommodate economic, geographic, linguistic and other aspects of cultural diversity, which altogether constitute a critical bridge to fulfilling their rights; l.
Organizations of and for persons with disabilities, self-help groups and self-advocacy groups, with support, as required by families and caregivers, participate in decision-making, as appropriate, to ensure that the interests of marginalized groups are adequately addressed; n. Incheon goals and targets 8. The Incheon Strategy is composed of 10 interrelated goals, 27 targets and 62 indicators.
Goal 1 Reduce poverty and enhance work and employment prospects A Eliminate extreme poverty among persons with disabilities Target 1. B Increase work and employment for persons of working age with disabilities who can and want to work Target 1. C Increase the participation of persons with disabilities in vocational training and other employment-support programmes funded by governments Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 1.
A Ensure that persons with disabilities are represented in government decision-making bodies Target 2. B Provide reasonable accommodation to enhance the participation of persons with disabilities in the political process Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 2.
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A Increase the accessibility of the physical environment in the national capital that is open to the public Target 3. B Enhance the accessibility and usability of public transportation Target 3.
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C Enhance the accessibility and usability of information and communications services Target 3. D Halve the proportion of persons with disabilities who need but do not have appropriate assistive devices or products Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 3. A Increase access to all health services, including rehabilitation, for all persons with disabilities Target 4.
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B Increase coverage of persons with disabilities within social protection programmes Target 4. C Enhance services and programmes, including for personal assistance and peer counselling, that support persons with disabilities, especially those with multiple, extensive and diverse disabilities, in living independently in the community Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 4. A Enhance measures for early detection of, and intervention for, children with disabilities from birth to pre-school age Target 5.
B Halve the gap between children with disabilities and children without disabilities in enrolment rates for primary and secondary education Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 5. A Enable girls and women with disabilities to have equitable access to mainstream development opportunities Target 6. B Ensure representation of women with disabilities in government decision-making bodies Target 6. C Ensure that all girls and women with disabilities have access to sexual and reproductive health services on an equitable basis with girls and women without disabilities Target 6.
D Increase measures to protect girls and women with disabilities from all forms of violence and abuse Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 6. A Strengthen disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction planning Target 7. B Strengthen implementation of measures on providing timely and appropriate support to persons with disabilities in responding to disasters Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 7.
A Produce and disseminate reliable and internationally comparable disability statistics in formats that are accessible by persons with disabilities Target 8. B Establish reliable disability statistics by the midpoint of the Decade, , as the source for tracking progress towards the achievement of the goals and targets in the Incheon Strategy Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 8.
A By the midpoint of the Decade , 10 more Asia-Pacific Governments will have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and by the end of the Decade another 10 Asia-Pacific Governments will have ratified or acceded to the Convention Target 9. B Enact national laws which include anti-discrimination provisions, technical standards and other measures to uphold and protect the rights of persons with disabilities and amend or nullify national laws that directly or indirectly discriminate against persons with disabilities, with a view to harmonizing national legislation with the Convention Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators 9.
B Development cooperation agencies in the Asia-Pacific region strengthen the disability-inclusiveness of their policies and programmes Target C United Nations regional commissions strengthen interregional exchange of experiences and good practices concerning disability issues and the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Indicators for tracking progress Core indicators